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Week 1a Readings
Week 1b Readings
Week 2a Readings
Week 2b Readings
Week 3a Readings
Week 3b Readings
Week 4a Readings
Week 4b Readings
Week 5a Readings
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Week 6a Readings


CCJ 5309     Penology     Summer 2006
Last updated Tuesday, June 06, 2006 04:21 PM
FSU School of Criminology

Dr. Cecil Greek

Contact Points:
850-906-0340 (home phone)
850-644-4746 (office)
850-339-4268 (cell)
850-644-9614 (fax)

Personal Web Page:

Required Texts:

Blomberg, Thomas and Stanley Cohen (eds.). (2003). Punishment and social control.  (2nd edition). NY:Aldine de Gruyter.

Blomberg, Thomas and Karol Lucken.  (2000). American penology.  NY:Aldine de Gruyter.

Garland, David. (2001). The culture of control. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 

Garland, David. (1990). Punishment and modern society.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Johnson, Robert. (2002). Hard time: Understanding and reforming the prison. (3rd edition). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. 

Latessa,  Edward et al (eds.). (2005). Correctional contexts: Contemporary and classical readings. (3rd edition). Los Angeles: Roxbury. ISBN: 1931719594

Rothman, David. (1990). The discovery of the asylum. (revised edition). NY:Aldine de Gruyter.

You can order all of these from the FSU Bookstore and they will be shipped as one order. Order on-line through efollett at


Course Overview:

As with all social institutions, one of the best ways to approach an understanding of how we got to our current situation is through historical review of past practices leading up to the present. This is certainly the case with our society’s decision that the prototypical form of punishment for criminal offenders ought to be incarceration in a penal facility.

Thus, the first part of the course will focus on the historical constellation of factors that led to the adoption and eventual acceptance of prisons as the American way of punishment. However, once the prison model was adopted, it did not remain stagnant. Each generation of reformers and penologists offered ways to improve the outcome of inmates’ prison experiences. Ideas about sentencing, optimal prison regimes and “treatment” changed as a result.

An important theoretical trend to analyze is what these changes implied about our society’s overall vision of how to socially control deviant individuals and populations. David Garland has best analyzed these changes. The course will focus on the major models developed in the “sociology of punishment,” up to and including our current system’s move toward “post-modern” punishment regimes. 

The second half of the course will discuss some of the major critical issues within contemporary correctional systems. These topics include those who live and work within correctional settings. Inmate subcultures have been of interest to criminologists since the mid-20th century. On the other hand, the experiences of correctional staff has only more recently been subjected to penological study. Nevertheless, how correctional staff maintain order without being seen as legitimate power holders by inmates remains an important sociological question. As total control is not possible (except in supermax type facilities), how inmates and correctional staff interact to maintain order is an important empirical area of study.

As the United States is one of the few modern nations to retain the death penalty, we will discuss several issues related to its contemporary use. Included will be subtopics such as false convictions, racial imbalance in its usage and life on death row.

The long standing debates about the functions of prisons include considerable discussion of whether prisons can “cure” crime. In particular, various treatment modalities have been created and utilized in hopes of reducing recidivism. The current ethos is anti-treatment, pro-punishment; nevertheless, treatment programs, broadly defined, continue within most correctional systems.

Since the 1960s, American correctional institutions have been an arena no longer considered “hands off” to inmates’ Constitutional rights. The course will cover the impact of opening our correctional institutions to the courts, current inmates’ rights and the continuing struggle for legal authority.

Another product of the 1960s was the massive expansion of community corrections as an alternative to prison. While first argued for from anti-labeling and anti-stigmatization perspectives, the current rationale for community corrections comes from the more crime-control oriented intermediate sanctions movement. Is this movement a genuine alternative to prison or further example of net widening?

The course will conclude with a discussion of where we go from here. Will the future bring greater or lesser use of incarceration? Will treatment become more widely supported again? Will simple economics lead to greater use of community options? What are the future technologies that will be employed in 21st Century social control?

Mandatory First Day Attendance Policy:

All students are required to attend the first day of class or they are dropped from FSU courses. As this class does not meet in person, the method of taking attendance on the first day will be conducted via email. Students are required to send an email to the instructor on Monday May 9 by 11:59 PM or they will be dropped from the course. Send the email to

Course Readings by Week and Topic:

Week 1A: History of Penology

B&L 2,3,4,5
L 1, 3

R 1,2,3,4,9
J 1

Week 1B: History of Penology

R 10,11
B&L 6,7,8
J 2
L 4, 5

Week 2A: Theories of Punishment

G1 1,2,3,4,5,6,7
B&C 1,3

Week 2B: Theories of Punishment

G1 8,9,10,11,12
G2 1
B&C 12,13

Week 3A: Culture of Control

G2  2,3,4,5,6,7,8
L 6
B&L 12
J 3
B&C 2,11

Week 3B: Inmate Subcultures

B&L 9, 13
L 7,8,9,10,11
J 4,5,6
B&C 4,15,16

Week 4A: Correctional Staff


L 13, 14
J 7,8

Week 4B: Death Penalty

L 35
B&C 14
Additional Articles

Week 5A: Treatment

L 15,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,38

Week 5B: Inmate Legal Rights

B&L 10
L 17,18,19,20
B&C 17

Week 6A: Community Corrections

B&L 11
L 29,30,31,32
J 10
B&C 8,19

Week 6B: Correctional Reform and Future

B&L 14
L 12,16,33,34,36,37
J 9
B&C 5,20,21,22

Author Key: Blomberg and Lucken (B&L), Blomberg and Cohen (B&C), Garland-1990 (G1), Garland-2001 (G-2), Johnson (J), Latessa (L), Rothman (R).


Class Discussions and Writing Assignments:

 Assignment One (Readings Discussions):
(First three weeks only)

Each student will be primary discussant on one of the readings’ chapters each reading section (2 per week), while all students will submit questions to the discussant. Depending upon how many students are in the class and how many readings there are in any particular section, some chapters may have more than one discussant, but students will only be required to  submit one question per chapter summary posted.

These discussions will take place inside the discussion boards on the Blackboard system, which will be set up by weeks with a separate discussion thread for each article/chapter.

A. Discussion leader’s role: Your article/chapter summary should be approximately one to two pages long and include the following components:
1. An abstract of the major points of the article/chapter.

2. A one paragraph discussion of each of the points made in the abstract.

3. A discussion of the data sources used by the author (historical materials, surveys, interviews, theoretical treatises, etc.). Be specific.

4. A discussion of the author’s overall point of view (e.g., liberal, conservative? crime-control, civil libertarian?  biased, unbiased? etc.). (For examples of discussion of what might constitute "bias" [conservative, liberal, anti-institutional, gender, racial, etc.] see issues of the journal Criminology and Public Policy and/or the following Web sites:

5. What’s missing from the author’s discussion? Is there another side to this issue the author seems to have ignored? Use the other readings, for example, to detail what's missing

B. Student responders’ role:

Your assignment is to post a question is response to your fellow classmate’s article/chapter review. The question can be about any one of the 5 items (from the above list) in the article review. The question can ask for clarification, additional information, or offer an opinion different from the discussion leader’s on the article.

C. The discussion leader will respond to the student’s question or request for additional clarification. Clarification can come from additional information in the original chapter or from any other readings in the same section of the course.

The discussion leader will post their summaries by Wednesday night at midnight for section a and Sunday night at midnight for section b each week. (Thus, week one section a discussion summaries are due by May 11th and section b by May 15th.) Students will have the next two days to post their questions. The discussion leader will reply to student questions over the next two days. (Being a day or so late is not OK, but anyone who falls more than a week behind will not be permitted to make up the assignment and lose the opportunity to earn credit for the assignment.)

Summer 2005 specific directions:

3 groups of 4 each have been created. Click the "Groups" button on the Campus site for the course to see which group you are in.

Here's the way we will facilitate Assignment 1, using the groups:
1. I have created discussion board forums within your group page for each of the first 6 discussions for first 3 weeks.
2. I have given full moderator privileges to each student. This allows you to create new threads within each forum (1A, 1B, etc.)
3. To become the discussant for an article for that section of the course, go to the group forum discussion for that section. If no one has yet created a post indicating they want that article/chapter it's yours to discuss. If someone else has already claimed the article you want, you must choose another.
4. If you want to, you can choose the chapter/article you want for all 6 forums related to Assignment 1 now, as these forums have already been created.
 It is essential that you not fall behind, as this messes up all the other students in your group. If you are the initial discussant you must post in a timely manner. As respondents you must reply to the discussant within the time limitations, etc. Please report to me via email students in your group you notice not participating, so this can be rectified. I'll will be checking in almost daily as well to make sure that all are participating. These discussions are the equivalent of classroom discussions. If you don't participate, it's like not going to class.

Here's the time line we need to work towards keeping each week. The entire week (A&B portions) runs from Tuesday through Monday night at 11:59PM.

Main discussant posts should be going up by W night for A and Sat night for B. Students questions should come in over the following two days (TH and F for A) (Sa and Su for B). The readings discussants then have until Monday night to reply to all the questions.

If you post your summaries, questions, or responses late you will mess up the other students in your group.

I will read and grade material starting on Tuesday mornings. If there is a reason you can not keep to this schedule for next 3 weeks please email me to let me know.





Assignment Two (Comparisons to Media Stereotypes Concerning Corrections):
(Weeks 4 through 6 only)

In the second half of the course we will move from intensive discussion of the readings to an application of the readings. As most Americans have never been inside a prison or jail and not taken a college course on corrections, their knowledge is based primarily on fictional (movies and TV shows like Oz) and journalistic accounts. One of the goals of the course will be to compare these popular culture images of corrections to scholarly academic literature.

For each section (A & B) the student will be required to compare one popular culture account to two of the scholarly sources for that section (2 scholarly sources per section). Thus, in week Four A the student will compare a movie, TV show, chapter from a prison novel or newspaper story, TV documentary, etc. to two of the required reading articles on correctional staff. For week 5A, popular culture images of treatment and rehabilitation will be the topic. And, so on through week 6.

I've elsewhere written on how Hollywood depicts prisons. See:

Sample Movies list plus IMDB Keyword Search

Sample Newspaper Articles Page

Media selections can be used only once. Each week you must submit a new media selection. The film Shawshank Redemption can not be used.

Each submission should be approximately 2 pages in length. These will be submitted using the discussion forum for the appropriate week. Submit both a Word document and copy and paste the text into a discussion forum post.

A. Write a summary (around one half page) of the information provided or plot of the media source.

B. Your follow-up discussion should include both comparisons and contrasts.

  1. In what ways do the scholarly literature and media source agree?

  2. In what ways do they differ?

  3. What are the most glaring kinds of information missing from the media account? 

  4. What biases exist in the media account? (e.g., liberal, conservative? crime-control, civil libertarian?  pro-inmate, pro-correctional staff? etc.)

Each student will also be required to write one response to each student’s post. This can not be an “I agree with everything you said” response. The student must discuss one other article from the week’s assigned scholarly readings not covered in the student's original post, and specifically cite that article. You must choose a different scholarly source for each of your response posts. (Some extra readings for comparison purposes have been posted for death penalty and correctional officers.) It can be one of the articles you used in your own submission, if it is directly relevant. What insights does the article you have selected have for discussion of the topic? Please discuss more than one item from your source which is relevant to your commentary. Expected length for each response post is one paragraph  (100 to 150 words).

The discussion leader will post their summaries for part A by Wednesday night at midnight each week. (Thus, week 4A post is due by May 31st, Week 4a responses by F; Week 4B due Saturday night June 3rd and responses by Tu, etc. (Being a day or so late is OK, but anyone who falls more than a week behind will not be permitted to make up the assignment and lose the opportunity to earn credit for the assignment.)

During the first half of the course you can be collecting the popular culture materials you wish to analyze. If you’re off to the video store to rent a movie, consider watching a prison film. (All the episodes of Oz are now on DVD, for example.)

There are a number of ways to collect news stories about prisons.

The organization of Criminal Justice Journalists sends a daily email of major criminal justice stories written by their members, and appearing in national newspapers. Criminal Justice Journalists (CJJ) provides a summary of the nation's top crime and justice news stories with Internet links, if any. If you are interested in receiving their news report, Crime & Justice News, please use their registration form. You can also go to their News Center site to search all archived CJN stories.

A site that specifically sends out information on international criminal justice news stories, including corrections in the U/S. and other countries, is WJIN: The World Justice Information Network. You will need to enroll with WJIN first, then sign up for the news clipping service.

News bots can help
you be selective by searching the websites of newspapers, magazines, and e-zines to find new articles that are of specific interest to you. You can request that all stories on prisons, punishment, the death penalty, probation, etc. be tracked by using any of these as keywords.

News Bots are reviewed here.

 News Hub

 News Index


Other suggestions for services that will send stories to you via email include the New York Times (use their news tracker service to create personal daily news clippings).

Google now has a news search feature as well.

In order to track current news stories one can build an online, updateable newspaper/magazine page or set up a news clipping service. Crayon assists you in building a customized newspaper choosing from the specific sections of thousands of online newspapers and other media sources. As these newspaper sections are updated daily, your personal Crayon newspaper continues to provide up to date news.

You may locate other ways to track such stories. Please share these with the class via email. If you locate other good news clipping services, please let the class know about them.

As an FSU student you can use the Lexis-Nexis news service, too. It's directly linked from the FSU Library databases page under L.

Assignment Three (Term Paper):

The term paper will be due during the final week of class on, Wednesday June15th by midnight. You may turn your paper in early.

The purpose of this assignment is to become more familiar with one of the issues raised about corrections in this course. The paper can focus on any topic related to course discussion. Your primary source of materials must be recently published, scholarly academic articles and books.

Synthesis level understanding of the themes discussed in this course is expected. On synthesis level knowledge, see Bloom's taxonomy. If your paper, for example, is on inmate subcultures then your discussion must demonstrate awareness of the major theoretical models used to explain the nature of inmate subcultures. This is the only reason to refer to materials in the course reading list in your paper and list them on your paper's reference list. Your own unique research is to be based upon the other books and scholarly articles you collect to write the paper. These do not count toward the 15 sources minimum needed.

Submit your topic for the paper via email directly to the instructor by May 18th. A “complete” bibliography is due by May 25th (submit via email). A sample bibliography has been posted. You may also turn in an outline, abstract, sections of the paper, etc., if you wish for the instructor’s review, but this is not required.

Notes on library help to find sources:

FSU has both full text article databases, and will send you books and articles not available full text online, but order as early as possible. So, here's what to do to search for scholarly academic articles for your paper:

1. Go to:

2. Click on the button in the upper left that says "Off campus access"

That will take you to:

3. Enter your user name and password in the boxes under EZ Proxy Use your garnet account information.

4. Choose list all databases under "Most Used Databases."

Using the alphabet go to the database you want to search through (e.g. Go to "C" then down to Criminal Justice Abstracts.)

Q: What 's considered a scholarly source? Which databases offer access to abstracts of scholarly sources?

 A: Check out my online lecture on this, lecture 8 for CCJ5078 course.

See also Gary Kleck's piece on this, which is linked in that on-line lecture.

Q: How do I find out if FSU has access to an article I want in full text online version?

A: Once you find scholarly sources on your topic you can quickly find out if FSU has full text versions of the articles for instant download. It may be in another database as full text, if its not in the one you found the abstract in. To determine whether FSU Libraries subscribe to or have access to a particular journal in electronic form, click on e-journals under "General E-Resources" on the library home page ( Once you type in the title of the journal, a screen will come up indicating whether the journal is available, what database it's in, and the dates that are available. The name of each database is hyperlinked, so you'll be able to click on it and go directly to the database and get your article.

If a journal isn't available online, the library may have it in print. Journals to which the libraries subscribe are listed in the online catalog. They will send you copies if requested.

Q: How do I get a book or an article?

A: If the FSU Libraries own a book that a distance learner wants, it can be sent to you. (Exceptions are materials with limited circulation, such as reference books or materials from Special Collections, etc…) Use the Libraries' Interlibrary Loan (ILLiad) service,

to request materials not available online. The first time you create your profile for the ILLiad, choose "distance learner" where you are asked "Your Status". The book will be mailed to the address you give, free of charge. You must pay the return postage, or, at no charge, you can return the book(s) to any FSU Library before the due date. If you need the book for a longer period of time, you can use Online Renewal.

Photocopied materials will be sent to you via email or fax. THE LIBRARY WILL NOT COPY AND SEND ANY MATERIALS ALREADY AVAILABLE FULL TEXT FROM AN ONLINE LIBRARY JOURNAL SUBSCRIPTION OR DATABASE. You must check on this first before requesting reprints. See above.

Q: Can I borrow books from another public university or community college in Florida?

A: Your FSUCard identifies you to other state university and community college libraries. You may present an active card to obtain borrowing privileges. Circulation policies such as number of books and length of borrowing vary from library to library. You will want to check policies prior to borrowing materials. We suggest that you call the library and ask about their circulation policies for the material(s) you need.

Q: Are legal materials available?

A: For papers with legal or due process issues, law reviews are an excellent scholarly source.  They often address two sides of an argument and provide the legal explanations for many topics in criminal justice.  Lexis-Nexis (Academic University) provides full text law reviews.  This database is available through FSU's library.  Directions to access the database are provided below:

1) Go to

2) Click on Academic University

3) On the left hand side there is a column of search forms, choose "Legal Research."

4) Then, choose "law review"   (it is very important that you choose Law Reviews and NOT Legal News.  Legal News is from newspapers and are not scholarly sources.)

5)  When you type in your key words, please mind the date option.  It is automatically set for 6 months. You might want to change the date accordingly.

Another HELPFUL Source for Scholarly materials:

A very useful source, but one that charges a fee is Questia. They offer full access to on-line books and scholarly articles, plus tools to help write and properly cite sources. Click on "Take the Questia Tour" to see all they offer.


Submitting Papers: Please name your papers using your last name as part of the file name. Thus, the paper submitted by Bob Jones would be named with the filename jones.doc. Please send papers to the instructor (in Word format or Word Perfect if at all possible; in not as RTF files) by using the Digital Drop Box feature within Blackboard.

Follow the steps below to access the Digital Drop Box.

Step 1                 Click the Student Tools Button.

Step 2                 Click Digital Drop Box in the Student Tools area.

Step 3                 Click Send File. Browse to the Location of the Document on your  Computer’s Hard Drive to Upload the Document. (Note: “Add File” Button only uploads the file to your personal drop box, not to the instructor)

Paper Format:

The paper will use APA format. See:  FOLLOW THIS EXACTLY!

A sample outline in APA format is also available in Microsoft Word format, download from:

For complete paper writing guidelines, including citation and plagiarism rules, see:

Specifically, these format rules must be followed:

  • 12-15 pages (If the paper falls short, points will be deducted).
  • double-spaced and NO spaces in-between paragraphs
  • 12 Pts. font max. Standard font, such as Times New Roman (If using Arial or Currier no larger than 11Pts) 
  • Margins on the paper should be 1” all around
  • Justification should be set on left
  • A title page is required that includes your name
  • Pages are to be numbered
  • The use of complete sentences and paragraph breaks are required. Use transition sentences that link paragraphs.
  • All references must be used for citation purposes inside the paper or they do not count.
  • A minimum of 15 sources is required, only two can be non-scholarly. Last semester a student turned in a paper using only newspaper articles as sources. Newspaper articles are not scholarly sources.
  • Paper must follow 1st paragraph format and include a conclusion
  • Each paragraph should begin with a topic sentence that summarizes the paragraph. Structure the rest of the paragraph deductively. See: Proposals That Work by Locke for how to write as an academic researcher.
  • You may not use the textbooks as one of the 15 major sources, but they can be used as additional references, and to demonstrate synthesis knowledge of course themes or perspectives.

***The first paragraph of any writing assignment is the most important. In effect, the first paragraph should serve as an outline or abstract of your paper. The major theme or topic of your paper should be stated in the very first sentence. Each following sentence or section in the first paragraph should introduce the various subtopics of the paper in sequential order. The second paragraph should then introduce your first subtopic, and so on.***

Points will be deducted if this format is not followed. If the paper contains no citations or includes plagiarized material, a zero will be given. 

All material, not your own, must be cited.  Papers will be graded on content, punctuation, and grammar. Papers missing proper citations will be graded down as this is a form of academic dishonesty.

It is essential that you start work on this early in the semester and work on it over the course of the entire semester. It is the biggest percentage portion of points for the entire course, so writing an inadequate paper could affect your overall grade in the course significantly.


Course Grading Criteria:

1. Week 1-3 Discussion Forums per week (2 forums per week)

Initial Discussion Leader Post = 15 points
Student Questions   = 5 points
Discussion Leader Response to Questions = 5 points

Thus, 50 points possible per week x 3 weeks = 150 points

2. Week 4-6 Discussion Forums per week (2 forums per week)

Student Initial Discussion Post = 15 points
Student Comment Posts =  10 points

Thus, 50 points possible per week x 3 weeks = 150 points

3. Course Term Paper = 200 points      

500 Total Points

 Grading Scale :      

500 Total Points Possible                                                                

465-500         A

450-464         A-

430-449         B+

411-429         B

400-410         B-

380-399         C+

370-379         C

350-369         C-

Honor Code:  Students are expected to uphold the Academic Honor Code published in The Florida State University Bulletin and the Student Handbook.

The Academic Honor System of The Florida State University is based on the premise that each student has the responsibility (1) to uphold the highest standards of academic integrity in the student’s own work, (2) to refuse to tolerate violations of academic integrity in the university community, and (3) to foster a high sense of integrity and social responsibility on the part of the university community.

Students with disabilities:  Students with disabilities needing academic accommodation should: (1) be registered with the Student Disability Resource Center on his or her own campus; (2) bring a letter to the instructor indicating the need for accommodation and what type.  This should be done during the first week of class.  This syllabus may be made available in an alternate format upon request.