Gary Kleck. 2013. “Deterrence: Actual vs. Perceived Risk of Punishment” Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

Gary Kleck. 2003. “Constricted Rationality and the Limits of General Deterrence” Punishment and Social Control: Enlarged Second Edition.

Ray Paternoster, Linda Saltzman, Ted Chiricos and Gordon Waldo. 1982. “Causal Ordering in Deterrence Research: An Examination of the Perceptions – Behavior Relationship” Deterrence Reconsidered: Methodological Innovation.

Gordon P. Waldo. 1981. “The Death Penalty and Deterrence: A Review of Recent Research” The Mad, the Bad, and the Different: Essays in Honor of Simon Dinitz.