Carter Hay

Director, Graduate Program

Hay’s research examines the causes and prevention of crime with special attention to the family environment, the development of self-control, and policy efforts to reduce juvenile crime.

Research Interests

Empirical test of theories of crime causation | Causes and consequences of low self-control | Life course criminology | Delinquency-reduction policy and programming | Offender re-entry


Ph.D. 1999, The University of Texas at Austin; Sociology

M.A. 1995, The University of Texas at Austin; Sociology

B.A. 1993, Southwestern University; Economics


Residential Positive Achievement Change Tool (R-PACT) Validation. Awarded in 2012, Florida Department of Juvenile Justice ($82,659).

Scholarships for Service for FSU M.S. Computer Criminology and CNSA Students and Supplement (Co-PI; PI: Michael Burmester). 2013-17, National Science Foundation ($1,393,866).

Validation study of the Standardized Program Evaluation Protocol. 2016, Florida Department of Juvenile Justice ($55,000).

Predicting reoffending: Improving the Validity of Risk Assessment in the Florida Juvenile Justice System (Co-PIs: Carter Hay, Jennifer Copp, and Brian Stults). 2017-2018, Florida Department of Juvenile Justice ($207,817).

Recent Publications

Hay, Carter, Walter Forrest, Brian J. Stults, Ryan C. Meldrum, and Brennan Kirkpatrick. Forthcoming. “Collective self-control as a feature of social contexts: Theoretical arguments and a multilevel empirical test.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 

 Meldrum, Ryan C., Peter S. Lehmann, Carter Hay, and Jacob Judd. Forthcoming. “Self-control, homicide offending, and homicide victimization.” In Delisi, M., & Burgason, K. (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Homicide Studies. Routledge. 

 Hargrove, Emily, Brian J. Stults, Carter Hay, and Ryan C. Meldrum. 2023. “Sleep duration as a key mediator of the effects of risk factors for substance use.” Journal of Criminal Justice, 88, 102102. 

 Meldrum, Ryan C., Brian J. Stults, Carter Hay, Poco Kernsmith, Joanne P. Smith-Darden. 2022. “Adverse Childhood Experiences, Developmental Differences in Impulse-Control and Sensation-Seeking, and Delinquency: A Prospective Multi-Cohort Study.” Journal of Criminal Justice, 82, 101993.  

Stults, Brian, Jorge Hernandez, and Carter Hay. 2021. “Low Self-Control, Delinquent Peers, and Crime.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.

Widdowson, Alex, Carter Hay, and Sonja Siennick. 2021. “Romantic Partnerships and Criminal Desistance: Considering the Role of Partner’s Socioeconomic Characteristics.” Criminology 59: 158-190. 

Kim, Joonggon, Sonja Siennick, and Carter Hay. 2020. “The Impact of Strain on Self-control: A Longitudinal Study of Korean Adolescents.” Youth & Society 52:912-933. 

Young, Brae Campion, and Carter Hay. 2020. “All in the Family: An Examination of the Predictors of Visitation Among Committed Juvenile Offenders.” Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 18:54-77. 

Meldrum, Ryan, Brae Campion Young, Sadhika Soor, Carter Hay, Jennifer Copp, Madison Trace, and Poco Kernsmith. 2020. “The Association between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Low Self-control.” Criminal Justice and Behavior 47:166-186.  

Forrest, Walter, Carter Hay, Alex Widdowson, Michael Rocque. 2019. “The Development of Impulsivity and Risk-taking: Implications for the Dimensionality and Stability of Self-Control.” Criminology 57:512-543.

Selected Publications

Hay, Carter, and Ryan Meldrum. 2016. Self-Control and Crime over the Life Course. Los Angeles: Sage.

Hay, Carter, and Walter Forrest. 2008. “Self-Control and The Concept of Opportunity: The Case for a More Systematic Union.” Criminology 46:1039-1072.

Hay, Carter, Edward Fortson, Dusten Hollist, Irshad Altheimer, and Lonnie Schaible. 2006. “The Impact of Community Disadvantage on the Relationship between the Family and Juvenile Crime.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 43:326-356.

Hay, Carter, and Walter Forrest. 2006. “The Development of Self-Control: Examining Self-Control Theory's Stability Thesis.” Criminology 44:739-774.

Hay, Carter. 2001. “Parenting, Low Self-Control, and Delinquency: A Test of Self-Control Theory.” Criminology 39:707–736.


307A College of Criminology and Criminal Justice BLDG (CRM) Mail Code: 1273
Office Hours

Monday: 9 AM - 1 PM

Wednesday: 9 AM - 1 PM


Resume / CV
C. Hay Vita232.65 KB
Additional Documents